Pneumococcal PCV Vaccine Type | Usage | Precautions | Side Effects
- Pneumococcus (Streptococcus pneumoniae), a gram-positive bacteria, is an important cause of various pyogenic infections, most commonly respiratory tract infection and meningitis.
- Pneumococcal disease is endemic all over the world. Young children and those above 65 years are particularly susceptible to serious infections.
- About 90 distinct serotypes of pneumococcus are known to cause disease in humans. 23 of the 90 serotypes are estimated to cause 90% of pneumococcal infections.
- Polysaccharide Vaccine (capsular polysaccharide antigen of pneumococci).
- PCV7: (Pneumococcal Conjugate 7-valent) contains capsular polysaccharide antigens of 7 common pneumococcal serotypes, conjugated to non-toxic diphtheria carrier-protein for induction of a robust immune response. Now replaced mostly by PCV13 (which follows).
- PCV13: (Pneumococcal Conjugate 13-valent) contains capsular polysaccharide antigens of 13 common pneumococcal serotypes (7 found in PCV7 plus 6 more), conjugated to a non-toxic diphtheria carrier-protein for induction of a robust immune response.
- PPSV23: (Pneumococcal Polysaccharide 23-valent) contains capsular polysaccharide antigens of 23 common pneumococcal serotypes. The polysaccharide antigens are not conjugated to a protein derivative.
- 2 – 59 months (5 years): All children should be vaccinated, with PCV13, using a 4-dose schedule as: 2months, 4months, 6months, 12—15months.
- 6 – 18 years: Routine use not currently recommended for children older than 5 years. Children with certain medical conditions like asplenia (functional or anatomical), immunocompromising conditions like HIV, solid organ transplant, cochlear implant or CSF leaks, should receive single dose of PCV13 followed at 6-12 weeks later by a single dose of PPSV23.
- 65 years or Older: All adults in this age group should receive a single dose of PPSV23. If previously not vaccinated with PCV13, they should receive one dose of PCV13 first, followed at least 8 weeks later by a single dose of PPSV23. Persons who have received PPSV23 but not PCV13 should receive a single dose of PCV13 at least 12 months after the previous PPSV23 vaccine and should receive another PPSV23 vaccine 6-12 months after PCV13.
- 19 – 64 years: Routine vaccination not currently recommended in this age group. Persons who have certain medical conditions like asplenia (functional or anatomical), immunocompromising conditions like HIV, solid organ transplant, cochlear implant or CSF leaks, should receive single dose of PCV13, and two doses of PPSV23 vaccine.
- Smokers and asthmatics should also receive pneumococcal vaccination.
PVC13 should not be used in:
- Patients who had severe allergic reaction to previous dose of PCV13 or PCV7 vaccine,
diphtheria toxoid, or any other component of the vaccine.
PPSV23 should not be used in:
- Patients who had severe allergic reaction to a previous dose of PPSV23 vaccine or any component of the vaccine.
- Children younger than 2 years.
Precautions for both PCV13 and PPSV23:
- Vaccination may be delayed in acutely ill patients until they are well again.