Haemophilus Influenza vaccine Type | Usage | Precautions | Side Effects

Haemophilus Influenza vaccine Type | Usage | Precautions | Side Effects

  • Haemophilus Influenza is a gram negative bacteria, with two major categories: encapsulated and non-encapsulated. There are 6 recognized serotypes of encapsulated H. influenza (a, b, c, d, e and f).
  • H. influenza type b (Hib) is a major cause of meningitis, pneumonia, and epiglottitis in infants and young children.

Vaccine Type


  • Polysaccharide-protein conjugate vaccine.

Available as


  • Monovalent vaccines: contain capsular polysaccharide of H. influenza type b conjugated to a protein carrier. A number of monovalent Hib vaccines are currently licensed for use.
  • Combination Vaccines: several combinations of Hib vaccine with other bacterial and viral vaccines are available as well.

Effectiveness


  • Since the beginning of routine immunization against Hib, about 99% decline in Hib disease has been reported.

Usage


Routine Vaccination:

  • Routine immunization of all children against Hib is recommended with either a monovalent Hib vaccine or a combination vaccine containing Hib polysaccharide.
  • A 2 or 3 dose primary series is recommended, depending upon the type of vaccine used. Schedule is: 2, and 4 months of age, OR 2, 4, and 6 months of age.
  • Regardless of whether a 2 or 3 dose primary schedule is followed, a booster dose is recommended at 12-15 months of age.

At risk groups:

  • Persons considered at increased risk for invasive Hib disease include those with functional or anatomic asplenia, HIV infection, immunoglobulin, or early component complement deficiency, recipients of a hematopoietic stem cell transplant, and those receiving chemotherapy or radiation therapy for malignant neoplasms.
  • A single dose of Hib conjugate vaccine should be administered to non-immunized older children and adults who are asplenic or who are scheduled for an elective splenectomy. Those scheduled for splenectomy should receive the vaccine at least 14 days before the procedure

Precautions


Contraindicated in:

  • Infants younger than 6 weeks of age.
  • Persons who had severe allergic reaction to a previous dose of the vaccine or persons known to have be hypersensitive to any component of the vaccine. Some vaccines contain latex while others have yeast.

Precautions:

  • Because Hib vaccine is not a live vaccine, it can be given to immunocompromised individuals; the immune response to the vaccine may however, be suboptimal.